Transducer play an important role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to a different.
It really is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is changed into an electric energy.
Kinds of transducer:
The two main kinds of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Sensor is really a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electricity by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the best types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical power by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (including quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied to the structure, it generates an electric powered charge and, when an electric field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism can be referred to as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to get voltage changes and for that reason can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be based upon piezoelectrics. In this instance, the Compression Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while reducing the input power simultaneously, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually utilized to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are generally operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very widely used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used together with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive implies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not generate a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical energy and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great choice for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when innovative performance is required.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated under the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great choice for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to supply the controller the right information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the right amplitude and phase output towards the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any sort of rapid actuation can cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it will cause. In the event these forces are unwanted, another piezo mechanical system having a counter mass could be integrated and driven using a signal in the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out and also the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is usually utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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